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Digital Storytelling in EFL Classrooms

This course on "Digital Storytelling in EFL Classrooms" is crafted to empower educators and English language learners by offering practical insights and techniques for integrating digital storytelling into language learning, with a focus on the undergraduate level. The course is divided into three parts: Part I introduces digital storytelling, Part II focuses on creating digital stories (DST), and Part III covers lesson planning. Each section aims to equip educators with the necessary tools to enhance language learning through digital storytelling.


An introduction to Digital Storytelling 

Why Digital Storytelling?
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Point of view

Digital storytelling is an awesome tool for engaging undergraduate English learners in writing, speaking, and digital literacy. Instead of just turning in traditional assignments, students can use this method to submit their work in a whole new light. They can craft narratives using multimedia elements like images, audio, and video, making their presentations innovative and exciting. It's like they're not just handing in assignments, but sharing stories that come alive digitally! Digital storytelling relies on showing as much as telling, exemplifying that 21st-century literacy is more than just words on paper. 

According to the Institute of Progressive Education and Learning, digital stories are often presented in compelling, emotionally engaging formats. The concept can also cover a range of digital narratives, including digital web-based stories, interactive stories, and hypertext stories. In hypertext fiction, for instance, readers can use hypertext links to move from one node of text to the next.

As with traditional storytelling, most digital stories focus on one specific topic and feature a particular point of view. These stories can vary in length but educational digital stories can last anywhere from two to 10 minutes (Educational Uses of Digital Storytelling, n.d.).

Dramatic question

Digital Storytelling in Schools

Emotional content

Educators in the 21st century believe that technology can be an effective tool in educating the new generation, making learning goals easier to achieve (Alismail, 2015). Even the oldest colleges in the United States and the world leverage this for their curricula. Digital storytelling has proven to be a powerful teaching and learning tool for engaging both teachers and students (Robin, 2008).

Teachers and instructors can also use digital stories to their advantage. Teachers can create digital storytelling to generate interest and engagement for students of the “YouTube generation" (Dreon et al., 2015). Digital stories can appeal to diverse learning styles, allowing instructors to present abstract or conceptual information in a more understandable way.

Alismail (2015) further states that multimedia tools such as digital storytelling provide students with opportunities to participate and interact in the classroom while gaining new skills such as synthesis, analysis, and evaluation. Dillon (2014) also lists numerous benefits associated with using digital storytelling as an educational tool.


Benefits of Digital Storytelling in Education

Recording one’s voice


  1. Creates Space for Meaningful Listening: Digital stories provide students with the opportunity to digest information in a meaningful way, particularly important in an age where people are bombarded with stories and information. Digital stories allow teachers to genuinely engage students in the story’s message.

  2. Persuades the Brain and the Heart: Digital stories can teach students the value of emotional rhetoric, allowing them to explore new ways of thinking or acting. These stories can elicit emotional responses and encourage students to pursue topics they’re passionate about.

  3. Showcases Student Learning: Students benefit not only from receiving information through digital stories but also from creating their own digital stories that feature their experiences and learnings. Creating a digital story improves students’ technical skills and hones their research and writing abilities.

  4. Enhances Multiple Literacies: The University of Houston’s College of Education asserts that digital storytelling "provides a strong foundation in many different types of literacy, including information literacy, visual literacy, technological literacy, and media literacy." Brown et al. (2005) label these skills as "Twenty-First Century Literacy" skills.


Other Uses of Digital Storytelling


  1. Digital storytelling has also proven useful in areas beyond education. For instance, projects such as Silence Speaks have expanded digital storytelling into public health and social services. Digital stories from the Silence Speaks initiative highlight the structural causes of gender oppression, violence, and poverty while demanding accountability and change at various levels of society (Silence Speaks, n.d.).

  2. In the United Kingdom, the Patient Voices program uses digital stories to share the experiences of patients and healthcare workers. These stories have led to a deeper understanding of both patients' experiences and the challenges faced by healthcare workers (Haigh & Hardy, 2011).

  3. Digital storytelling is also utilized in the business sector. Here, digital stories are tools for user-generated content, with consumers sharing their opinions based on personal experiences with a product or service. These stories help increase engagement with the target audience (Barry, 2018).

Elements of an Effective Digital Story


One does not need to hold a degree in media communications to create digital stories. In fact, simply knowing the tools of the trade and understanding how to wield them to craft effective stories is sufficient.

According to digital storytelling pioneer Joe Lambert, there are specific elements that should be considered when making a digital story. While Lambert emphasizes that aspiring digital storytellers do not need a rigid formula, these elements can serve as a helpful starting point in the process (CDS’ Seven Elements of Digital Storytelling, n.d.).

Point of view

Other Elements of a Digital Story


Digital storytelling allows a writer to engage in personal expression, a notion supported by Lambert’s view that all stories are inherently personal. Therefore, these stories should be constructed from the author's own understanding and experience. This is why many digital stories are written in the first person rather than the third person.

According to Lambert, addressing the point of view in a digital story also defines the specific concepts the author wants the audience to understand. Every part of the story needs to help the audience grasp these concepts, making the definition of the point of view an essential aspect of the editing process as well.

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Dramatic question

According to Lambert, simply making a point doesn't necessarily sustain the audience's attention throughout a digital story. Stories that successfully engage the audience typically feature a dramatic question, which is resolved at the end of the narrative. For example, a dramatic question in a crime story might be, "Who committed the crime?"

Furthermore, in sophisticated storytelling, the dramatic question is woven into the narrative in a way that doesn't overtly highlight the story's underlying structure (CDS’ Seven Elements of Digital Storytelling, n.d.). Lambert also explains that digital stories become richer and more complex when authors subvert the expectations set by the dramatic question.

Emotional content

Tips on Creating an Effective Digital Story


Effective digital stories stir an emotional reaction from the audience. Such digital stories work to discover and pursue a new understanding rooted in the concept of being human (Digital Storytelling: Essential Elements, 2020).

Furthermore, according to Lambert and StoryCenter, a story that involves “fundamental emotional paradigms—of death and our sense of loss, of love and loneliness, of confidence and vulnerability, of acceptance and rejection—will stake a claim on our hearts." Digital stories that deal with these issues are more likely to hold an audience’s attention and can help authors establish a connection with the audience.

Lambert further asserts that according to his experiences with the group production process, people tend to go out of their way to support others who are willing to tell emotionally charged stories.

Recording one’s voice

The author’s voice can add nuance to a digital story and make it more personal. Various characteristics of the author’s voice, such as pitch, inflection, and timbre, can "convey meaning and intent in a very personal way" (Digital Storytelling: Essential Elements, 2020).

Lambert explains that there are specific concerns to address when recording one’s voice for a digital story. For instance, there might not be enough time for the author to sufficiently practice their lines, which can affect the naturalness of the voiceover. To achieve the best results, Lambert suggests speaking slowly in a conversational style and keeping the writing concise.


Creators of digital stories must be economical in their use of text, dialogue, and visuals. Digital storytelling is primarily a visual medium, and effective storytelling with images involves skillfully juxtaposing language and visuals to create a narrative. An author needs to consider how dialogue and visual elements work together to form a cohesive story in the audience’s mind. Collaborating with directors, authors must learn to keep the story visually rich with minimal dialogue and scenes that propel the narrative forward.

Due to this practice of economy, most digital stories are relatively short. For example, content from digital storytelling pioneer StoryCenter typically runs from two to three minutes. Limiting the scope of a digital story offers two main benefits: it makes the story creation process more manageable and requires the writer to focus only on the essential elements of the story (Digital Storytelling: Essential Elements, 2020).


According to Lambert (n.d.), pacing is considered by many to be "the true secret of successful storytelling." A story’s flow and rhythm determine how well it sustains the audience’s interest throughout its duration. Storytellers must be able to slow down or speed up a story as needed. In some cases, improving a digital story’s pacing involves deciding which parts can be omitted to ensure that the pacing feels natural.

Various visual and audio effects can help establish a digital story’s pacing. Quick visual effects and upbeat music, for example, suggest urgency and excitement, while slower music can convey drama and contemplation.


A soundtrack can greatly enhance and underscore a digital story, "adding complexity and depth to the narrative" (Digital Storytelling: Essential Elements, 2020). Lambert (n.d.) explains that music in a film evokes emotional responses that complement the visual information. For instance, a swelling treble of strings can create a sense of suspense, while upbeat melodies can suggest happy endings.

Typically, the soundtrack is added at the end of the digital story creation process. This approach makes it easier to screen the story in a draft format first, allowing for adjustments to the story's length if necessary.

Other Elements of a Digital Story

These elements are geared towards ensuring that a digital story is optimized for more technologically adept, more modern audiences (Santos Miran, 2016).

  • Engagement opportunities. A good digital story allows viewers to interact through a number of engagement opportunities. These opportunities can include sharing information through social media, sharing comments, subscribing to podcasts, and even contributing content.

  • Technical structure and organized content. According to Santos Miran (2016), a strong technical foundation is essential to a good digital story. Technical tools that can contribute to an effective digital story include a customized content management system, collaboration tools, and an analytics framework for measuring audience behavior.

  • Visual design. Digital stories should encourage easier reading as well. This is achieved through the use of clear space and the careful selection of fonts and type size. A digital story’s visual design should also be optimized for various touch-enabled devices, different viewports, and varying download limitations.

Tips on Creating an Effective Digital Story

Digital stories prove to be effective educational tools in a wide variety of environments. As explained above, there are a number of tools that can help with the creation of digital stories, whether these stories are ebooks, podcasts, or videos. Below are some tips that can help make the creation process easier. Keep in mind, however, that one of the best ways to learn is by studying digital storytelling examples that you like. You can emulate their style and technique until you can find your own voice.

  • Start with the right idea and scope. For digital storytelling, Lasica (2010) recommends thinking small. It is best to focus on one type of story; this can prevent creators from being caught in conveying all the aspects of someone’s life, for instance. Ideally, the output will be a three to five-minute work that reveals a small, personal truth.

  • Show instead of telling. Creators must keep this in mind when writing the script. The script must be written economically, with observations instead of inferences (Orech, 2007). For instance, instead of telling the audience what they are feeling, an effective narrator instead shows emotions through body language.

  • Less is more when it comes to visual effects. While these visual effects can convey relationships between ideas, creators should keep in mind that effects should serve to enhance the story. The overuse of visual effects such as transitions and panning effects can distract from the narrative and the story itself (Orech, 2007).

Examples of Digital Storytelling Tools

Creating a digital story requires a diverse set of skills and tools, including research, scriptwriting, and storyboarding (Ohler, 2006). Typically, video editing software is also employed to assemble the final version of the digital story.

Here are some digital storytelling tools that simplify the creation process and assist both educators and students in producing effective digital stories.

Book Creator

Book Creator is a tool that allows users to create multimedia ebooks and digital stories. The tool allows users to add videos and audio files to their creations, along with professionally drawn shapes through AutoDraw capabilities. Moreover, the platform allows teachers to set up multiple libraries and enjoy real-time collaboration.

  • Free version: Available (browser-based)

  • Pricing: $60 to $120 per teacher, per year. Volume pricing also available upon request.

  • Deployment type: Web-based, mobile

  • OS: Windows, Mac

  • Export formats: ePub, PDF, video


WeVideo is a video creation tool that’s designed for easy use. The platform is ideal for all learning environments, with a cloud-based deployment that allows for use on any device. Digital stories created on the platform can also be exported to LMS software and video sharing sites such as YouTube and Vimeo. The platform also offers educators a number of resources to enhance their use of digital storytelling, including lesson plans, webinars, tutorials, and professional development workshops.

  • Free version: 30-day free trial for teachers

  • Pricing: $299 per year for groups of up to 30 members

  • Deployment type: Cloud-based

  • OS: Windows, Mac

  • Export formats: mp4, mp3 (audio-only exports)


Storybird is a language arts tool that helps kids develop their skills in visual storytelling. The platform curates original art from illustrators into a library of more than 10,000 images. Students can use these images for creating books, comics, and poetry, guided by over 600 lessons, quizzes, and writing prompts from experienced educators and authors. More than 5 million stories have been created on the platform, making Storybird one of the largest storytelling communities in the world (Andres & Poler, 2017).

  • Free version: None available

  • Pricing: $4.99 per month (individual yearly plan)

  • Deployment type: cloud-based

  • OS: Windows, Mac

  • Export formats: PDF

Storyboard That

With over 14 million storyboards created on the platform, Storyboard That is one of the more well-known digital story tools today. Storyboard That offers versatile features that can help educators create content and manage learning in the classroom. The platform allows teachers to use a drag-and-drop interface for creating storyboards and comic strips that help boost student engagement.

  • Free version: Available

  • Pricing: StoryBoard That for Teachers starts at $8.99 per month for single teacher pricing.

  • Deployment type: Web-based

  • OS: Windows, Mac

  • Export formats: .zip, .png, .gif, .ppt, PDF


Anchor is a platform for creating and distributing podcasts for free. The app can capture audio from mobile devices or desktop computers and provides a wide variety of tools for editing these recordings. Users can import existing audio or video and convert video files into audio or vice versa. Users can also add sound effects and background tracks from Anchor’s library.

  • Free version: Available

  • Pricing: n/a

  • Deployment type: Web-based, mobile

  • OS: Android, iOS

  • Export formats: mp3, m4a, wav, mpg


FlexClip is a versatile video creation tool tailored for effortless usage. Perfectly suited for various learning environments, it operates via cloud-based deployment, ensuring accessibility across all devices. With FlexClip, crafting engaging digital narratives is a breeze. Educators will find an array of resources at their disposal, including lesson plans, webinars, tutorials, and professional development workshops, all geared toward enhancing digital storytelling proficiency.

  • Free Plan: A completely free plan.

  • Pricing: Start from $9.99/month if billed annually.

  • Deployment type: cloud-based

  • OS: Windows and Mac.

  • Export Formats: MP4, MP3, GIF.


Creating Digital Storytelling 


Creating digital storytelling involves the artful combination of various multimedia elements to craft a compelling narrative. This modern approach to storytelling integrates text, images, audio, and video to create dynamic and engaging stories that captivate audiences. Digital storytelling is an effective tool for education, personal expression, and professional communication, enabling creators to share their unique perspectives in an immersive format.

Process of Creating Digital Storytelling

Creating a digital story involves a series of well-defined steps that guide the storyteller from initial concept to the final product. This process combines creativity, technical skills, and careful planning to produce a compelling and engaging narrative. Here’s an overview of the steps involved in creating digital storytelling:

1. Concept Development

      Idea Generation:

  • Start by brainstorming ideas that are meaningful and focused. Aim for a small, specific topic that can be effectively explored in a short time frame.

  • Identify the key message or theme of your story. What do you want your audience to take away from it?


  • Gather relevant information and materials. This can include historical data, interviews, personal experiences, and multimedia resources.

  • Ensure your research supports and enriches your story.

2. Scriptwriting

      Drafting the Script:

  • Write a concise and clear script that outlines the narrative flow. The script should include dialogue, descriptions of scenes, and any voiceovers.

  • Use the principle of "show, don't tell" (Orech, 2007). Instead of stating emotions or actions explicitly, use descriptive language and observations to convey them.

Review and Edit:

  • Revise the script for clarity, coherence, and impact. Ensure it aligns with your main theme and message.

  • Seek feedback from others and make necessary adjustments.

3. Storyboarding

       Planning the Visuals:

  • Create a storyboard that maps out each scene of your story. This includes visualizing the sequence of events and the types of media you will use (images, video clips, text, etc.).

  • Detail the elements of each scene, including camera angles, transitions, and key actions.

Organizing Content:

  • Organize your media assets according to the storyboard. This helps in maintaining a logical flow and ensures that all necessary elements are in place.

4. Production

      Gathering Media:

  • Collect and create the multimedia elements needed for your story. This includes filming video clips, recording audio, taking photographs, and sourcing any additional visuals.

  • Ensure high-quality production values for each element to enhance the overall story.

Recording Audio:

  • Record voiceovers and any additional audio elements, such as sound effects and background music.

  • Ensure clear and crisp audio quality to maintain audience engagement.

5. Editing

      Assembling the Story:

  • Use video editing software to combine your script, storyboard, and media elements into a cohesive narrative.

  • Pay attention to the pacing and timing of each scene. Aim for a final product that is three to five minutes long to maintain viewer interest.

Adding Effects:

  • Enhance your story with visual effects, transitions, and animations. Use these elements sparingly to support the narrative rather than overshadow it (Orech, 2007).

  • Ensure that all effects serve to enhance the story and do not distract from it.

6. Review and Refinement


  • Preview your digital story and check for any technical issues or areas that need improvement.

  • Gather feedback from a small audience and make necessary adjustments based on their input.

Final Edits:

  • Refine your story by making final edits to improve clarity, coherence, and overall impact.

  • Ensure that the story flows smoothly and that all elements work together harmoniously.

7. Publishing and Sharing


  • Export the final version of your digital story in a suitable format for your intended audience and platform.

  • Ensure the exported file maintains high quality in both visuals and audio.


  • Share your digital story through appropriate channels, such as social media, websites, or educational platforms.

  • Engage with your audience by encouraging feedback and discussion.

8. Reflection and Feedback

In school, we sometimes forget to stop and think about what we've learned and how we can do better. Questions like "What did I learn?" and "What can I do better next time?" are important.

It's really helpful for students to learn how to think about their own work and give helpful feedback to others. They can use things like blogs, wikis, discussion boards, or polling tools to do this.


This is the exciting part where students see if their storyboard needs any changes and if they have everything they need for their masterpiece. You'll notice students going back to their storyboard to make it better.
I really enjoy this stage because students get so into their work that they often stay after class or come back during lunch or after school to keep working.
They'll find cool ways to use the technology and tools, like mixing images, making cool transitions between videos, and adding music or sound effects.
I also give students a
rubric at this stage so they know what they need to do for a finished project and how they can go above and beyond.

Digital Storytelling Tutorial

Example of DST Productions

Example 1

This DST production was created by one of my students, Horieh , during her time as an undergraduate in my "Oral Production Class". She crafted this digital story based on a couple of stories provided by me. Students had the opportunity to choose one of the stories and narrate it in a digital format. You can watch her production below.

This project not only helped Horieh improve her speaking skills, but also enhanced her vocabulary and boosted her digital literacy.

Example 2

This DST production was crafted by one of my students, Ravjot, during her time as an undergraduate in my "English Literature Class". She delved into Shakespeare's play, "King Lear", for her project. As an assignment, I tasked students with selecting a topic from our discussions on "King Lear", articulating their insights, and then digitalizing their interpretations to share with the class. 

This project served as a platform for Ravjot to not only refine her writing and speaking abilities but also to enrich her vocabulary and advance her digital literacy skills.


Digital Storytelling Lesson Plan



Subject:              Technology

Grade span:       1 to 12

Duration:            Several session


In this lesson, students create original stories incorporating text, drawings, photos, animation, audio, and video. They utilize technology tools like digital cameras and computers to bring their stories to life. Story ideas can stem from personal and family experiences, cultural connections, and real or imagined people, places, or events.

Learning Goals:

  1. Enhance Communication Skills:

    • Encourage students to ask questions, express opinions, construct narratives, and write for an audience.

  2. Develop Computer Skills:

    • Strengthen students' abilities to use software that integrates text, still images, audio, video, and other media.


  • Choose the technology tools that are appropriate for the skill level of your students. Following are some basic recommendations:

  • One computer for every 2-3 students

  • Word processing software and presentation software such as PowerPoint; some recommendations for Mac and PC platforms can be found in the Resources section

  • Digital cameras

  • Tool for voice recording (most computers have this feature)

  • Post-it notes or index cards and poster paper to use for creating the storyboards

  • Internet access for instructor and student computers (optional)

  • Electronic projector for instructor computer (optional)

  • Microphones (optional)

  • Scanners (optional)


Instructors should determine students' computer skills level and select appropriate technology tools. Instructors also should have familiarity with multimedia software applications and equipment, or enlist help of a volunteer who does.

  • Become familiar with the digital storytelling process by completing at least one tutorial from those linked to on the Resources page.

  • Consult with day teachers to see if digital storytelling might enrich learning in a particular academic content area

  • Arrange for volunteers to assist students

What to Do:

Introduce students to digital storytelling

  • Ask students what stories they first remember hearing. Who was the storyteller? What were their favorite stories? Which did they like telling themselves? Lead the discussion to digital storytelling. You may choose to project on screen examples of digital stories linked to from the Resources page.

Explore some story ideas

  • Students might draw ideas from personal experiences, special events, their community, their school or afterschool program, family, and pets. More ideas can be found here .

  • After completing this brainstorming session, discuss what story the group wants to tell. Constructing a story as a group about a topic meaningful to them will help their learning of both the storytelling process and software needed to develop a digital story.

  • Note: This can be a group or individual activity. If this is the first time your group has created a story, a group effort may be easier to manage.

Draft a story (on paper) based on the chosen idea

  • Remind the class that they may make changes to the draft at any time. For younger students in particular, review basic storytelling concepts, such as that a story has a beginning, middle, and end.

  • As you guide your students through the storytelling process, use the seven main elements of digital storytelling, created by Joe Lambert, co-founder of the Center for Digital Storytelling. Visit the Resources page to read Lambert's Digital Storytelling Cookbook .

  • Remember that the story — not the technology — should drive this project. Although audio and visual media may enhance certain aspects of a story, students should focus on how best to communicate what's at the core of their story.

  • Different students can develop different parts of the story. Also, if this is your students' first experience with digital storytelling, keep the story short — no more than three minutes in length.

Introduce students to storyboarding

  • Hand out small colored sticky notes and sheets of paper pre-drawn with empty boxes, resembling an empty cartoon strip. Take them through the story frame by frame, discussing the pictures through which — and the sequence in which — they will tell their story.

  • After students have determined the text and picture sequence, discuss transitions, visual effects (if any), and soundtrack. Always keep in mind the skill level of your students for planning ways to represent their ideas.

  • To see additional resources that may be helpful for this part of the lesson, including links to digital images and sound clips that can be freely used, see the Resources page.

Working from a single computer with projection to create the group story would be greatly enhanced by use of an interactive whiteboard. See the Teaching Tip.

Help students prepare their final draft

  • Hand out small colored sticky notes and sheets of paper pre-drawn with empty boxes, resembling an empty cartoon strip. Take them through the story frame by frame, discussing the pictures through which — and the sequence in which — they will tell their story.

  • After students have determined the text and picture sequence, discuss transitions, visual effects (if any), and soundtrack. Always keep in mind the skill level of your students for planning ways to represent their ideas.

  • To see additional resources that may be helpful for this part of the lesson, including links to digital images and sound clips that can be freely used, see the Resources page .

View the group's story, then have students share their project with other students, teachers, and their parents.

  • You might also share the community story with the community, for example by posting it to your local Chamber of Commerce Web site. If time allows, plan a follow-up activity in which students will develop individual stories.

Explain the value of collaboration in creating a digital story

  • Have each student relate to a partner the special contribution s/he made to the project and why it was important. Discuss as a group what was learned about storytelling, and allow students to add and change their story based on their new understanding.

Compare the two types of storytelling

  • Discuss as a class what they found to be most interesting about digital storytelling compared to traditional storytelling. Check for student understanding that, by using other media, stories can be fare more than just text.

Evaluate (Outcomes to look for):

  • Student participation and engagement

  • Discussion that yields insightful comparisons between digital and traditional storytelling

  • An understanding that media can help make stories far more than just text

Find and download a rubric for students to use to evaluate their projects. One collection of rubrics for evaluation of multimedia projects may be found on the MidLink Magazine Teacher Tools Web site.


Click this link to see additional learning goals, grade-level benchmarks, and standards covered in this lesson.


  • Abiola, L. L. (2014). The effect of digital storytelling on kindergarten pupils’ achievement in moral instruction in basic schools in Oyo State. IOSR Journal of Research & Method in Education, 4(5), 26-34. IOSR-JRME


  • Andres, B., & Poler, R. (2017). Storyboard tools for university and education research projects. INTED proceedings (Online), 220-227.

  • Andrews, D. H., Hull, T. D., & Donahue, J. A. (2009). Storytelling as an instructional method: Descriptions and research questions. The Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning, 3 (2), 6-28. ResearchGate

  • Alismail, H. A. (2015). Integrate digital storytelling in education. Journal of Education and Practice, 6 (9), 126-129. ERIC

  • Barry, A. (2018, December 20). The complete marketer’s guide to digital storytelling. Cortex

  • Brown, J., Bryan, J., & Brown, T. (2005). Twenty-first century literacy and technology in K-8 classrooms. Innovate: Journal of Online Education, 1 (3). LearnTechLib

  • Sullivan, B. (n.d.). CDS’ seven elements of digital storytelling. Suffield Academy.

  • De Bock, D. (2019). Georges Cuisenaire’s numbers in colorA teaching aid that survived the 1950s. In 6th International Conference on the History of Mathematics Education (ICHME6, Date: 2019/09/16-2019/09/20, Marseille, France.

  • Dreon, O., Kerper, R. M., & Landis, J. (2011). Digital storytelling: A tool for teaching and learning in the YouTube generation. Middle School Journal, 42 (5), 4-10.

  • COE Digital Storytelling (n.d.). What is digital storytelling. Educational Uses of Digital Storytelling. Houston, TX: University of Houston.

  • UOW (n.d.). Digital storytelling. Wollongong, NSW: University of Wollongong-Australia.

  • Beverly, I. (2020, June 23). Digital storytelling: Essential elements. LibGuides at Atlanta University Center Robert W. Woodruff Library. Atlanta, GA: Atlanta University Center.

  • Haigh, C., & Hardy, P. (2011). Tell me a story—a conceptual exploration of storytelling in healthcare education. Nurse Education Today, 31 (4), 408-411.

  • Hung, C. M., Hwang, G. J., & Huang, I. (2012). A project-based digital storytelling approach for improving students’ learning motivation, problem-solving competence and learning achievement. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 15(4), 368-379.

  • Lasica, J. (2014, September 23). Digital storytelling: A tutorial in 10 easy steps. Socialbrite.

  • MacDonald, M. R. (Ed.). (1998). Traditional Storytelling Today: An International Sourcebook. Chicago, IL: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. Google Books

  • Ohler, J. (2006). The world of digital storytelling. Educational Leadership, 63 (4), 44-47. ASCD


  • Orech, J. (2007, November 1). Tips for digital storytelling. TechLearningMagazine.

  • Robin, B. R. (2008). Digital storytelling: A powerful technology tool for the 21st century classroom. Theory Into Practice, 47 (3), 220-228.

  • Santos Miran, V. (2016, February 24). Five elements of a good digital story. mStoner.

  • Signes, C. G. (2014). Digital storytelling and multimodal literacy in education. Porta Linguarum: Revista Internacional de Didactica de las Lenguas Extranjeras, (22), 237-250. Dialnet

  • StoryCenter (n.d.). Silence speaks. StoryCenter.

  • IPEL (n.d.). Screencasting & Digital Storytelling. Sta. Rosa, CA: Institute of Progressive Education and Learning.

  • Smeda, N., Dakich, E., & Sharda, N. (2014). The effectiveness of digital storytelling in the classrooms: a comprehensive study. Smart Learning Environments, 1 (1), 6.

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